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Pigments

Ribament Blue AGX

Ribament Blue AGX

Colour Index Name Pigment Blue 15:0

Colour Index No. 74160-11-7

CAS NO. 147-14-8

Chemical Family - Copper Phthalocyanine Blue Alpha Form

Ribament Alfa Blue-G

Ribament Alfa Blue-G

Colour Index Name Pigment Blue 15:1 Colour Index No. 74160 CAS NO. 147-14-8 Chemical Family Copper Phthalocyanine Blue Alpha Form(Solvent stable)

Ribament Blue AQX

Ribament Blue AQX

Colour Index Name Pigment Blue 15:3 Colour Index No. 74160 CAS NO. 147-14-8 Chemical Family Copper Phthalocyanine Blue Beta Form(Solvent stable)

Ribament Green IP

Ribament Green IP

Colour Index Name Pigment Green 7 Colour Index No. 74260 CAS NO. 1328-53-6 Chemical Family Copper Phthalocyanine (Chlorinated).

Red BR

Red BR

Colour Index Name Pigment Violet 19 Colour Index No. CI 73900 CAS NO. 1047-16-1 Chemical Family Quinacridone.

Pink Pigment

Pink Pigment

Colour Index Name Pink Pigment Red 122 Colour Index No. CI 73915 CAS NO. 980-26-7 Chemical Family 2,9 Dimethyl Quinacridone

DPP Pigments

DPP Pigments

Invented in the early age 1980's, these DPP pigments are small but considered as very important group of synthetic pigments. The intense Light fastness property was gradually developed in these pigments synthetically. The types of currently present DPP Pigments are:
Hybrid pigments are also a type of DPP Pigments. These pigments are produced by crystallizing Pyrroles with Quinacridones.

 

Structure of DPP PigmentsPyrroles have also been crystallized with quinacridones to produce hybrid pigments (PR N/A). The differences in colors in different kinds of DPP Pigments are due to the differences in the atom hanging symmetrically on the both hands of the molecules.

 

Properties of DPP PigmentsColoristic Properties
There is a wide range of color shade and opacity available due to DPP pigments. These pigments are extremely pure and have a nice shade. The color strength of these pigments are also very good.

Resistance properties
These DPP Pigments show very high resistance against light, heat and any type of change in position of atoms within a molecule of these pigments fastness. These pigments have also excellent resistant power against weather. Apart from this, these are very much heat stable and have high color strength and saturation.

 

Application of DPP PigmentsDPP Pigments produce large range of colors that are widely used in various applications. These large range of colors are possible due to the simple selection of different constituents on the phenyl rings. These pigments can be converted into soluble form through derivatisation methods. Thus, these pigments can be applied in the soluble form. Then, the derivatizing group is removed from the soluble form of these pigments. After removing the derivatizing group from the solution, the desired pigments are left there. This method increases the applicability of these DPP Pigments. DPP Pigments are high performance pigments and are mostly used for highest quality automotive coating.

 

Gen Next Developments:-

Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments

Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments

The Mixed metal oxide pigments gives high performance when it comes to their application as colorants. The generic name that is given to the class of pigments called mixed metal oxide pigments best describes the cobalt based pigments. 

Constant researches has led to the development of new cobalt blue and blue-green pigments. They are often termed as the second generation pigments. Features like enhanced UV absorption and durability. Pigments like Cobalt chrome aluminate blue-green pigments show very good absorption rates. They transmit even less than 0.1% light in the Ultra violet region. These mixed metal oxide pigments (second generation pigments) owe their excellent absorptive properties to a fine particle size distribution. This excellent property is shown in the form of a graph.


Striking Features

Very good compatibility with most of the resin systems.

Excellent thermal and chemical stability.

Ability to withstand high temperatures. As these pigments get produced as a result of solid-state reaction of salts or metal oxides at high temperatures. They show the unique ability to undergo extreme temperatures encountered during phases of processing or application.

Increased Tinctorial strength.

Competitive pricing.

Application of these pigments along with organics displays improved light-fastness property compared.

Mixed metal oxide pigments assumes the role of UV opacifiers, that can efficiently scatter away UV and visible light from the coating's surface.

 

Application of Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments

Mixed metal oxide pigments have a diverse range of applications.Mixed metal oxide pigments have a diverse range of applications.

To color vinyl siding

Window profiles

Garden tools

Automotive components

Appliance housings

Natural Iron Oxide Pigments

Natural Iron Oxide Pigments

Natural Iron Oxide Pigment is formed from one or more ferrous or ferric oxide and many other impurities such as clay, manganese or organics. The most important source of Natural Iron Oxide Pigments is Hematite, which is a oxide of iron having red color. The color of hematite varies from yellow to brown, such as siennas, umbers and ochers. But, these pigments can also be derived from another iron ore, i.e. Magnetite having a black color. The main characteristics of natural iron oxide pigments are: these are light fast, non bleeding, nontoxic and weather resistant.

 

Uses of Natural Iron Oxide Pigments

Natural Iron Oxide Pigments have various unique properties so these pigments are used for various purposes that include: coloring of concrete block, outdoor paintings and in other construction materials. The maximum mining and procession of natural iron oxide is done in USA. Pigments are used in paints, wood and paper stains, linoleum, oilcloth, mortar, plaster, rubber, brick, and other pigmented materials.

 

Estimated World Production of Natural Iron Oxide Pigments (Metric tons)

The leading producer countries of these pigments are: India, Cyprus, Iran, France, Italy and Australia.
CountryYr.2001Yr.2002Yr.2003Yr.2004Yr.2005
Austria5,0005,0005,0004,0004,000
Brazil2,0002,0002,0002,0002,000
Cyprus7,8008,20011,90012,00012,000
France1,0001,0001,0001,0001,000
Germany400419429400400
Honduras70941719000710007100071000
India3550036000365003600036000
Italy10002300230025002500
Pakistan500500500500500
Paraguay300300250250250
South Africa852252512512555
United States61500WWWW
Source: United States Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program

Sources of Natural Iron Oxide Pigments

Organic vs Inorganic Pigments

Organic vs Inorganic Pigments

The difference between Organic Pigments and Inorganic Pigments are based upon three principle factors. These three principle factors are given as follows:

 

Molecular structure of the pigments

In the molecules of the Inorganic Pigments, the cations of metal are found in an array form with the non-metallic anions. This arrangement doesn't allow these pigments to dissolve in the solvent and plastic. Examples: Iron oxide yellow, black, red and tan pigments.

In the molecules of the Organic Pigments, carbon chains or carbon rings are always present. As carbon element is associated with nitrogen and sulphur elements of the same class of the atomic table, so, sometimes in the molecules of the organic pigments, the atoms of nitrogen and sulphur atoms are also found along with the carbon atoms. Examples: Azo, pythalocyanine, diazo and anthraquinone pigments.

 

Source from where they are derived

The main source of organic pigments are plants and plant products whereas inorganic pigments are manufactured from topical cosmetic and also from dirt.

 

The differences between Organic and Inorganic pigments
ParticularsInorganic PigmentsOrganic Pigments
SourceMineralsChemically refined oil
ColorOften dullBright
Dyeing / Coloring StrengthLowHigh
OpacityOpaqueTransparent
Light fastnessVery goodVary from poor to good
SolubilityInsoluble in solventsHave have little degree of solubility
Degree of safetyMay be unsafeUsually safe
Chemical StabilityOften sensitiveUsually good
CostModerateMostly too expensive

Pearlescent Pigments

Pearlescent Pigments

Pearlescent pigments are special kind of pigments and belong to the same group of fluorescent and phosphorescent pigments. These pigments are also known as Pearl Pigments. The name Pearl has given to these pigments because they possess pearl like shine, when these pigments are covered with any metallic oxide out of mica slice. These pigments have high transparent appearance, more smoother plane and higher refractive co-efficient than other common pigments. These pigments simply look like flat powder.

Pearlescent pigments create unique characteristics for superior products. By driving aesthetic demand trends and creating a radiant visual impact for products, special effect pigments enhance and differentiate the products.

 

Characteristics of Pearlescent Pigments


 

Shinning intensity of Pearlescent Pigments

To Produce pearl like shine in these pigments Multiple Reflection process is used. Based on this method, Pearlescent pigments are mixed with greater transparent materials. Sometimes, to get suitable light in the materials, these pigments are mixed with transparent pigment or dye. Pearlescent pigments should not be mixed with opaque objects or with such pigments those have better coverage, because these pigments will affect the pearl shine. By adding few carbon black powder (say 0.01%), the shinning effect of these pigments can be increased.

 

Application of Pearlescent Pigments

The chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of pearlescent pigments make it an excellent pigment and today, pearlescent pigments have universal applications.

Phosphorescent Pigments

Phosphorescent Pigments

Phosphorescent Pigment has an unique property. Due to this property these pigments can glow even in the dark. Therefore, these pigments are also called as "glow in dark" class pigments.

Common pigments used in phosphorescent pigments include very smooth crystal particles of zinc sulfide and strontium aluminate. To stimulate the zinc sulphide crystal, some quantity of copper is added with it. As a result, the pigments of Phosphorescent will give the attribute to absorb light and emit this absorbed light for a longer period of time. The emitting process of absorbed light is called as Phosphorescence.

 

Phosphorescent Intensity

Phosphorescence is a specific type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence. The emitting brightness or phosphorescence of the Phosphorescent Pigments will remain visible upto few hours in the darkness. The time period can be extended from 2 to 4 hours and it depends upon the types of the pigments and intensity of the trapped energy. The other factors upon which the visibility period will depend are:

 

How to apply Phosphorescent Pigments

These pigments are mix with water based products in such a quantity, so that it can fully be used at that time because, these pigments dry up very quickly when these are mixed with water based products. Users should use a matter medium in order to not call attention instead of using any flat medium. Instead of using the present surface on which he/she is working, any acrylic glazing medium can be chosen. The extraordinary feature of these Phosphorescent pigments is that these can bring glows in the color palette in the dark.

Example: For an image having approximate dimension of 12" each and two glazed spoons into a plastic container.
Put a teaspoon of pigments on a plastic lid or paper lid. First, immerse the brush into the glaze and then dip into the pigments. The mixture of the pigments and glaze can be used on the stencil if the user have a stencil. For mixing the mixture on the stencil, user should follow the circular motion. Instead of offloading, user should apply the circular motion to offloading the pigments on to the stencil image. Until the whole image is not being covered, use this method repeatedly. The definition of the image will be obtained from the stencil pencil. With many applications, the user will need to build up the pigments.

If the user doesn't have any stencil then he/she can use a brush size. The brush size should be according to the image that has to be developed. The desired glow giving effect of the glow image either will be reduced or eliminated by the painted details. The user must abide the instructions while working with these pigments. He/she should avoid from any direct touch with skin or from inhaling the pigment powder. By using any clear acrylic product, the entire image can be sealed if it is required acrylic product will not damage the the glow.

 

Application methods of phosphorescent Pigments

Inks
Phosphorescent pigments have a special binding medium. Therefore, these pigments are mixed together with inks to made phosphorescent inks. For phosphorescent printing, the printing that is available is only silk screen printings.

Plastic Resins
Only transparent or translucent resins are suitable for the use phosphorescent pigments.

Pigment Intermediates

Pigment Intermediates

Pigment intermediates find a vast application in the color-producing industries, like textiles, inks, paper, and coatings and a host of others.

Pigment Intermediates are complex chemicals that are designed to add special properties, when small quantities of such are included while formulating specific products.

 

Some of the common types of Pigment Intermediates and their properties are given here

2-Naphthol
Phenol AS
Uses: Phenol AS is used as color base for dyestuff, giving color to cotton and viscose fibre, preparing fast pigment dyestuff and also organic dyestuff.

Tobias Acid
Physical properties of Tobias acid
Uses: Primary use as azo dyestuff and as azo pigment intermediates.

Intermediate for Pigment Red 185
Specifications:

Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments

Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments

Synthetic Red Iron Oxide Pigments were first made in a Laboratory setting by the 18th century. This pigments were given the name Mars Red. These pigments contained all the properties of their counterparts, i.e. Natural Iron Oxide Pigments. Form 19th century, the manufacturing of these synthetic iron oxide pigments started on regular basic. Gradually, the improvements have been taken place with every production process because these pigments have properties like durability, permanence etc. In the early 1920, the yellow synthetic iron oxide pigments (Mars Yellow) were produced for the first time. Vital improvement processes have been taking place along with its production and still improvement processes are continued. By modifying the manufacturing processes of Mars Red and Mars Yellow, the manufacturing process of Brown Iron Oxide Pigments also has been evolved.

 

Methods of preparation of Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments

There are various process of manufacturing synthetic iron oxide pigments are calcining, precipitation, reduction thermal decomposition of iron compounds.

The common colors of these pigments are orange, red brown and yellow. Basic chemicals are used for manufacturing of synthetic iron oxide pigments. To produce synthetic iron oxide pigments, iron salts or iron compounds are decomposed. By precipitating of iron salts and reducing the organic compounds by iron, pigments of synthetic iron oxide can be prepared.

 

Uses of Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments

These pigments find usage in many industries like: wood and paper stains, linoleum, oilcloth, paints, mortar, plaster, bricks, rubber and for other pigment able substances. The range of applications of synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments is longer than the Natural Iron Oxide Pigments. But in few specific cases, the uses of Natural Iron Oxide pigments can not be substituted by the Synthetic iron Oxide Pigments.

 

Synthetic Vs Natural Iron Oxide Pigments

These days, there is a large variety of Synthetic Iron Oxide Pigments available in the market. These synthetic pigments are found in different colors, having superior uniformity, excellent quality and high purity. But, the Natural Iron Oxide Dyes are most preferred because of their ample availability and low cost of extraction.

The main difference between Synthetic and Natural Iron Oxide pigments is based on their purity. The Natural Iron Oxide Pigments contain contaminants that reduce the working efficiency of these pigments.

These contaminants can be divided into two types. One having of coloring property and second type of contaminant behave as extender. These contaminants with coloring property are often magnetite, MnO etc. while the non-coloring contaminants are often derived from the Natural pigments. These non-coloring contaminants are used in the industry as fillers, including talc, calcium carbonates and clays.

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium (IV) oxide or Titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white.

Physically Titanium Dioxide Pigments are found in white powder form. High obscurity is present in these pigment powder. These pigment powders have very good whiteness, very high covering capacity, and good retardation capacity. And, due to these properties, the titanium dioxide pigments have a wide range of application and are considered valuable. These pigments are used in manufacturing of ink, plastic goods, paper, paints etc.

 

Common physical and mechanical properties of Titania (sintered titanium)

PropertyValues
Compressive Strength680 MPa
Modulus of Rupture140 MPa
Poisson's Ratio0.27
Dielectric Constant (1 MHz)85
Shear Modulus90 GPa
Micro Hardness(HVO .5)880
Dissipation Factor (1 M Hz)5*/10 to the power 4
Resistivity (25 degree C)10 to the power 12 ohm.cm
Resistivity (700 degree C)2.5*10 to the power 4 ohm.cm
Dielectric Strength4 KV/mm
Thermal expansion(RT-1000 degree C)9*/10 to the power 6
Thermal Conductivity(25 degree C)11.7 W/mk
Modulus of Electricity230 GPa
Porosity0%
Density4 gm/meter cube

 

Applications of Titanium Dioxide


Sintered titanium has relatively poor mechanical properties, so its applications are constrained.

 

Use of Titanium Dioxide as a pigment

The most common form of titanium dioxide as pigment substance is its powder form. As a pigment, it provides whiteness and opacity to paints and coatings, plastics, paper, inks, food, cosmetic and fibers.

The most common form of titanium dioxide as a pigment is white pigment. This is because, it is very white and very high refractive index.

The bright whiteness and high refractive index of titanium dioxide make it to become as an effective opacifier for pigments. It is also used as an opacifier in cosmetics, sunscreen, paper, paints etc.

 

Formation processes of Titanium Dioxide Pigments

These pigments are derived by processing the naturally occurring rutiles or ilmenite minerals. Both, the rutiles and ilmenite are the ores of titanium dioxide.

 

Fluorescent Pigments

Fluorescent Pigments

Fluorescent Pigments are the foundation blocks of all kind of fluorescent materials. For Fluorescence Pigments the rules are the same as they are for Phosphorescent Pigments. To make any fluorescence material, just we have to add the pigments of the fluorescence pigments. The intensity of the luminescence will increase along with the improvised quantity of fluorescent pigments. But there is a limit and this limit is up to the saturation point.

 

Application of Fluorescent PigmentsThese pigments can be utilize in mild solvent systems as well as in water based system. The following fields in which these pigments are used are given below:

 

Characteristics of fluorescent pigmentsFluorescent pigments have the capability to change the ultraviolet light into colors. Due to this feature, very standard quality of color shades are received. There is a close relationship between these fluorescence pigments and the optical brighteners. By changing the composition of the coating of the fluorescent pigments, the expected application can be determined along with their suitability. That is why, within one outlet, these pigments particulate many colorants.

 

Advantage of fluorescent pigmentsFluorescence pigments have the spell-bounding appeal of the colorant effect.

 

Disadvantage of fluorescent pigmentsThese pigments have poor light fastness property. These pigments are broken down in the sunlight which causes the consequent effect of losing the color, brightness and the strength.

Ribament Green P-777

Ribament Green P-777

Phthalocyanine Pigments

Phthalocyanine Pigments
Phthalocyanine Pigment is used in inks, coatings, and many plastics. The pigment is insoluble and has no tendency to migrate in the material. It is a standard pigment used in printing ink and the packaging industry.

Copper Phthalocyanine Pigment is essentially a copper (II) complex of the tetra aza tetra benzoporphine (CPC). The chlorinated derivative of Copper Phthalocyanine Pigment is Phthalocyanine green (Pigment green 7) and its brominated derivative is Pigment green 36 that comes with a shade that is yellowish green.

An important pigment from the family of Copper phthalocyanine is the C.I. Pigment Blue 15:3. The production steps of which is given here. 


Features of Copper Phthalocyanine Pigments

Some of the striking features which makes it a very useful for a variety of applications are the following:

Application of Phthalocyanine Pigment

A major and very useful application of these pigments lies in the manufacturing of cyan printing inks that is used in printing of papers and also in packaging materials.
The Family of Copper Phthalocyanine Pigments
Color Index NameColor IndexCAS NOChemical Family
Pigment Blue 1574160147-14-8Copper Phthalocyanine Blue Alpha Form
Pigment Blue 15:174160147-14-8Copper Phthalocyanine Blue Alpha Form (Stable in Solvent)
Pigment Blue 7742601328-53-6Copper Phthalocyanine (Chlorinated form)
Pigment Blue 3674265068425-85-4Copper Phthalocyanine (Colour-Brominated Green)

Quinacridone Pigments

Quinacridone Pigments
It is an important class of organic pigments. Its linear form is particularly important for exploiting it commercially. Quinacridone pigments are very novel pigments that have many diverse applications. Quinacridone pigments generally produce seven types of bright and intense colors. These colors range from deep yellow to even vibrant violet. The following is the chemical structure of Quinacridone pigment:


Features of Quinacridone Pigments

Application of Quinacridone Pigments

Quinacridone Pigments are widely used in ink industries, coatings, plastics, textiles to even in paintings.

The family of Quinacridone Pigments

Color Index NameColor Index No.CAS NOChemical Family
Pigment Red 122CI 73915980-26-72,9 Dimethyl Quinacridone
Pigment Violet 19CI 739001047-16-1Quinacridone
Pigment Red 202CI 739073089-17-62,9 Dichloroquinacridone
Pigment Red 209CI 739053089-17-61,8 Chloro quinacridone

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